Business startup and growth is an important pathway to industry leadership and the
creation of personal wealth, as well as a key source of job creation, innovation and
economic growth. In this sense, women’s entrepreneurship can provide a means to
more rapidly advance gender equality in industries, communities and countries around
the world. The GEM 2020 Adult Population Survey ran from April through August
2020 and offered an important opportunity to examine pandemic impacts on women
entrepreneurs, in addition to an analysis of global trends. This year, we also invited GEM
researchers from around the world to contribute chapters on women’s entrepreneurship.
This year’s GEM Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Report has three main aims:
1. Identify key gender differences and similarities in business stages and
motivations. We identify countries and regions where gender gaps may be
significant and where they may be closing. All of these trends are considered across
countries, geographic regions and levels of national income.
2. Examine the structural and cultural factors that influence women’s
entrepreneurship. This analysis includes demographic characteristics (age,
education, household income), business characteristics and cultural factors,
such as cultural perceptions and high-growth activities that influence women’s
entrepreneurship in complex ways across regions, countries and levels of national
3. Analyse how women entrepreneurs were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
In doing this analysis of the pandemic’s impact, we allow comparisons across the
country and regional contexts, taking into account the level of income by country as
an important indicator of economic development.
Our findings offer insights to a diverse audience of researchers, policymakers, educators
and practitioners. Our ultimate goal is to highlight areas where there are still gaps,
challenges and opportunities, where women entrepreneurs have made significant
progress and where the COVID-19 pandemic impacted their business performance and
SMEs form a dominant share of the private sector in developing countries, and account for more than 50
percent of jobs in their respective economies. Besides their positive employment effects, the growth and
vibrancy of these firms is also important for broader economic growth, diversification of economic base
and as a source of innovation that is exhibited by some of the start-ups. Women-owned SMEs are
emerging as one of the fast growing segments within the SME sector. Youth play an important role in the
creation of new firms and start up activities. Given this importance of SMEs for creation of more, better
and inclusive jobs, there is significant focus on understanding the constraints to growth of this sector and
implementing programs to address them in the World Bank Group and the other development
institutions. Among the several constraints that they face, access to finance is usually cited as the most
important and there are several instruments that can be applied to address this constraint. However, what
is the evidence of impact of these programs on the employment effects? This note brings together the
learnings and evidence from access to finance interventions on employment and provides some
recommendations for development practitioners who seek to maximize this objective from their access
to finance interventions.
This paper investigates to what extent and how micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries are adapting to climate risks. We use a questionnaire survey to collect data from 325 SMEs in the semi-arid regions of Kenya and Senegal and analyze this information to estimate the quality of current adaptation measures, distinguishing between sustainable and unsustainable adaptation. We then study the link between these current adaptation practices and adaptation planning for future climate change. We find that financial barriers are a key reason why firms resort to unsustainable adaptation, while general business support, access to information technology and adaptation assistance encourages sustainable adaptation responses. Engaging in adaptation today also increases the likelihood that a firm is preparing for future climate change. The finding lends support to the strategy of many development agencies who use adaptation to current climate variability as a way of building resilience to future climate change. There is a clear role for public policy in facilitating good adaptation. The ability of firms to respond to climate risks depends in no small measure on factors such as business environment that can be shaped through policy intervention.
This Learning Brief offers a clear justification for the role of development assistance organizations like USAID in catalyzing private finance for climate action. It synthesizes lessons learned from a broad set of donor experiences and offers
practical ‘how to’ descriptions of donor-supported activities that lead to additionality and positive climate and human impacts.This is one of three complementary resources that includes a set of case studies that examine various models of blended finance for climate action and a guidance note that provides a framework for understanding the potential for additionality and human impacts for blended finance from USAID’s perspective.
Is there a gender gap in financing Africa’s early-stage ventures? And are there differences between female and male founders—such as the sectors they choose, or the ambitions they have—that could explain divergent funding paths? As start-up financing in Africa keeps climbing to new records, these questions are becoming more urgent. To find answers, we leveraged Briter Bridges’ leading industry platform to comb through years of deal flow data and surveyed a random sample of 172 entrepreneurs operating across the continent.
To understand the network’s current level of support for climate entrepreneurship, ANDE identified which of its members work in climate adaptation, mitigation, and resilience and mapped where and how this support is being provided. Data were collected between March and August 2021 through a survey of ANDE’s member organizations as well as supplementary desk research. While the analysis in this snapshot is static, the information is meant to serve as a catalyst for greater climate action in the SGB sector.
With support from The Lemelson Foundation, ANDE conducted interviews with 13 representatives from a select group of funders and impact investors to identify barriers to and opportunities for funding climate entrepreneurship. While not an exhaustive list of funders, these representatives provided practical insight on how climate entrepreneurship is seen among funders focused primarily on climate action and/or entrepreneurship and how greater funding could be allocated to the intersection.
Southeast Asia is one of the fastest-growing regions in the world, with a total GDP of over USD 2.7 trillion. However, its progress is threatened by the increasingly adverse impacts of climate change. Entrepreneurship has a leading role in developing solutions to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. This report evaluates the current support ecosystem for climate and environmental entrepreneurs in six developing Southeast Asian countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Through ANDE's data collection and analysis, this report offers insights on the set of organizations supporting entrepreneurs that aim to address climate change mitigation, adaptation, and non-climate related environmental protection challenges.
In this article, empirical research on post-investment activities of business angels is reviewed and conceptualized as five distinct governance processes: boundary spanning, structuring, leadership, doing, and monitoring. These processes have the potential to reduce the exposure of business angels to relational risk and market risk. The identification of these governance processes also contributes towards understanding the social aspect of business angels’ post investment involvement. In particular, it is shown how the recognition of the cognitive/institutional dimension opens up for new questions about post-investment involvement. Finally, it is proposed that venture performance can be enhanced in practice if business angels and venture members develop skills that are connected to the governance processes.
This article examines the differences and features displayed by business angels (BAs), depending on the extent of their involvement with, and support for, the start-ups they finance measured by expertise, experience and contacts. With a sample of 293 Spanish BAs, using data obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, our results indicate that investors who develop more rigorous screening processes in the pre-investment process and hold regular meetings with founder teams are more likely to become High Value-Added Business Angels (HVBAs). Accordingly, the ability of BAs to transfer so-called ‘smart capital’ is conditioned by the levels of screening and assessment applied at the pre-investment stage in terms of both the quality of projects and founder teams and the extent to which the expectations and profiles of the two parties match.