With the launch of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, "SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth" has become a rallying cry for practitioners aiming to boost entrepreneurship as a means of economic and social development. However, while the concept of decent work may seem straightforward, clearly defining a “quality job” has proven to be a complex endeavor. The report by ANDE first summarizes how job quality is defined and measured, then provides an overview of the current evidence on the quality of jobs within SMEs, and finally examines the effectiveness of interventions to improve job quality.
Con el lanzamiento de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, el "ODS 8: Trabajo Decente y Crecimiento Económico" se ha convertido en una consigna para las y los profesionales que buscan impulsar el emprendimiento como un medio para el desarrollo económico y social. Sin embargo, mientras que el concepto de trabajo decente puede parecer sencillo, definir claramente un “trabajo de calidad” ha probado ser una tarea compleja. El reporte primero resume cómo se define y se mide la calidad del empleo; después provee un panorama de la evidencia actual sobre la calidad del empleo en las PyMEs y, por último, examina la efectividad de las intervenciones para mejorar la calidad del empleo.
SMEs form a dominant share of the private sector in developing countries, and account for more than 50
percent of jobs in their respective economies. Besides their positive employment effects, the growth and
vibrancy of these firms is also important for broader economic growth, diversification of economic base
and as a source of innovation that is exhibited by some of the start-ups. Women-owned SMEs are
emerging as one of the fast growing segments within the SME sector. Youth play an important role in the
creation of new firms and start up activities. Given this importance of SMEs for creation of more, better
and inclusive jobs, there is significant focus on understanding the constraints to growth of this sector and
implementing programs to address them in the World Bank Group and the other development
institutions. Among the several constraints that they face, access to finance is usually cited as the most
important and there are several instruments that can be applied to address this constraint. However, what
is the evidence of impact of these programs on the employment effects? This note brings together the
learnings and evidence from access to finance interventions on employment and provides some
recommendations for development practitioners who seek to maximize this objective from their access
to finance interventions.
The purpose of this report is to provide delegates to the 104th Session of the International Labour Conference with up-to-date evidence on the relevance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for employment, the key constraints faced by SMEs and their workers, and the effectiveness of measures to support this enterprise segment. The report ultimately attempts to provide answers to crucial questions such as whether SMEs are living up to their promise of being a major contributor to job creation, whether these jobs are of adequate quality, and how effective the various policies for promoting SMEs are.
With over 10 years of active involvement and experience, ANDE is committed to further deepening our role in the entrepreneurship and development ecosystem. Our updated global strategy, which informs ANDE’s global and regional work for the coming years, aligns with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically focusing efforts on three urgent issues: decent work and economic growth, gender equality, and climate and environmental action. This brief focuses on decent work and economic growth, for India. It has been developed in partnership with ANDE Members Upaya Social Ventures and Global Alliance for Mass Entrepreneurship (GAME). The brief highlights the current status quo of how small & growing businesses are contributing to creation of decent jobs and outlines strategies for collaborative action to strengthen the ecosystem.
Based on a review of existing literature, this paper discusses to what extent and how SMEs can
deliver green and inclusive growth. The OECD defines green growth as aligning economic growth and environmental objectives. Specifically, it involves transitioning to a resource-efficient, low carbon economy and preserving environmental resources while seizing the economic opportunities that this transition generates (OECD, 2015). Similarly, the World Bank defines green growth as “economic growth that is environmental sustainable.” Put it more concretely, it means “enabling developing countries to achieve robust growth without locking themselves into unsustainable patterns” (World Bank, 2012). Meanwhile, inclusive growth involves raising “societies’ welfare or living standards broadly defined.” It is a multidimensional measure of growth and includes both income-related measures of well-being and non-income elements such as health and education. Inclusive growth also emphasizes the question of distribution; that is, how are aggregate changes in measures of growth distributed across households and individuals (Boarini, Murtin and Schreyer, 2015)? Simply, green and inclusive growth involves a transition to an eco-friendly, low-carbon economy and simultaneously, broad improvements in societal welfare. Thus, the paper is concerned with discussing to what extent greening SMEs delivers widespread societal welfare gains."
"Salaried wage jobs are the distinguishing feature separating the middle class from the poor in
developing countries (Banerjee and Duflo 2008). Where do salaried wage jobs come from, and
how can small and medium-sized firms create more of them? We review the evidence on
constraints to growth of small and medium enterprises. We first examine evidence on
constraints to capital and skilled labor, firms’ primary inputs to production. We then consider
factors that affect the efficiency with which firms are able to transform inputs into outputs,
focusing on managerial talent. Finally, we look at the importance of linking firms to markets
and the role of demand in generating firm growth. We conclude with a proposal for a research
agenda built around important but unanswered questions. "
"Today India, and the world, finds itself in the unenvious position of enduring two major economic recessions in a span of 10-12 years, unprecedented in modern history. In the aftermath of COVID-19, which has hit the small enterprise sector the hardest, where a majority of women-led ventures are recorded, it has become imperative to actively find avenues to encourage sustainable growth. This report delves deep into the various factors and circumstances inhibiting the growth of women-led enterprises, and further explores how women entrepreneurship can be encouraged while also being a force of change. Through various articles mentioned in this collection, which are based on original research studies conducted in this area during the pandemic, we seek to provide a snapshot of the existing obstacles, but also the way forward in promoting women entrepreneurship, which can be a major contributor in the socio-economic recovery of India."
"In collaboration with Google, this report presents four opportunities for unlocking the potential of female entrepreneurship in India: 1) Level the playing field for the high-impact, employment-creating entrepreneurs; 2) Enable ambitious “solopreneurs” and small business owners to scale and become high-impact entrepreneurs; 3) Encourage more women to start enterprises; 4) Build, strengthen and scale productive rural “agripreneurs.”
"This paper investigates the contribution of small firms to employment, job creation, and growth in developing countries. While small firms (< 20 employees) have the smallest share of aggregate employment, the small and medium enterprise sector's (< 100 employees) contribution is comparable to that of large firms. Small firms have the largest shares of job creation, and highest sales growth and employment growth, even after controlling for firm age. Large firms, however, have higher productivity growth. Conditional on size, young firms are the fastest growing and large mature firms have the largest employment shares but small young firms have higher job creation rates."