Gender Norms Study: Women-led Micro and Small Businesses – Pakistan
Published by: CARE


Social Norms are the rules that govern behavior. Gender norms are social norms defining acceptable and appropriate actions for women and men in a given group or society. They are embedded in formal and informal institutions, nested in the mind, and produced and reproduced through social interaction. They play a role in shaping women and men’s (often unequal) access to resources and freedoms, thus affecting their voice, power and sense of self.

The purpose of this study was to gain quantitative and qualitative information about gender norms faced by women entrepreneurs in Pakistan related to childcare responsibilities and financial decision making and responsibility, which impact a woman’s ability to run and grow her own business. The focus group consisted of growth-oriented entrepreneurs with two or more employees and who have been in business for at least two years.